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Citations & Plagiarism

Learn more about citations and how to avoid plagiarism.

Key Definitions

Citation

A reference to a source (such as an article or book) that provides information to help others find the same work; often follows specific formats based on type of source and citation style (usually APA, MLA, or Chicago) being used

Plagiarism

Using another person's words or ideas without giving credit to that person; in an academic context, this includes copying exact quotations without citing the source, paraphrasing or describing and idea you learned from a source without giving credit, and not providing complete or accurate information in citations

In-Text Citation

A reference to a source within the text of a paper that briefly identifies the work that is quoted or paraphrased, with a corresponding full citation in the bibliography, reference list, or works cited page

Bibliography

A list of citations or references of sources used in research; in APA Style, this is titled "References"; in MLA Style, this is titled "Works Cited"

APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is a writing and citation style commonly used in the social sciences, business, and nursing

References

Citations (in APA Style) used to inform your research

MLA Style

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is a writing and citation style commonly used in the humanities, especially language and literature

Works Cited

A list of citations of sources used in research when writing in MLA Style

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is a writing and citation style commonly used in the arts and humanities - especially literature, history, and performing arts (such as music)

Notes-Bibliography Format

A citation format option in Chicago Style; uses footnotes or endnotes along with a bibliography

Footnote

A note providing clarification or in-text citation that appears at the bottom of a page; notes are indicated in the main text with a superscript number

Endnote

A note providing clarification or in-text citation that appears at the end of an article, chapter, or work; notes are indicated in the main text with a superscript number

Author-Date Format

A citation format option in Chicago Style; generally used in social sciences and follows similar rules to APA Style

Citation Manager

Applications, software, or other programs that allow researchers to collect references, organize them, share them, and generate citations for bibliographies; examples include NoodleToolsEndNoteMendeley, and Zotero; many require subscriptions or other costs, but CSM provides free access to NoodleTools (see the NoodleTools Guide for more information)

NoodleTools

A research management tool that helps with citing sources, taking notes, and organizing or outlining research; CSM provides access to NoodleTools to all current students (email library@csmd.edu for help creating an account); check out the NoodleTools Guide for more information

Citation Guides