APA (American Psychological Association) Style is a writing and citation style commonly used in the social sciences, business, and nursing. APA’s publication manual is currently on the 7th edition.
This guide contains examples of common citation formats (in APA style) and resources for additional information about using APA style.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique string of characters used to identify a specific object (such as a journal article). It works like a barcode or URL.
If your journal article does not have a DOI, your citation is usually finished. If the journal article is from a website (not a research database), include a URL.
*Note: Previous editions of APA Style required articles without DOIs to include Retrieved from [journal home page URL]
Include the DOI for your eBook or book chapter if it has one. If there is not a DOI, do not include other information (ISBN, database name, or URL).
Use (Name, Name, & Name, Year) the first time you cite the source. Use (Name et al., Year) for any citations after that.
Use page numbers to cite any quotes. If you are paraphrasing, APA does not require the page number (check with your instructor for preference).