Skip to Main Content

APA Quick Citation Guide

Citing Sources in APA Style

APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is a writing and citation style commonly used in the social sciences, business, and nursing. APA’s publication manual is currently on the 7th edition. 

This guide contains examples of common citation formats (in APA style) and resources for additional information about using APA style.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

What is a DOI? 

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique string of characters used to identify a specific object (such as a journal article). It works like a barcode or URL. 

I can’t find a DOI. What should I use instead? 

If your journal article does not have a DOI, your citation is usually finished. If the journal article is from a website (not a research database), include a URL.

*Note: Previous editions of APA Style required articles without DOIs to include Retrieved from [journal home page URL] 

My eBook or book chapter has a DOI. Should I include it? 

Include the DOI for your eBook or book chapter if it has one. If there is not a DOI, do not include other information (ISBN, database name, or URL). 

Which in-text citation style should I use when citing a source that has multiple authors? 

Use (Name, Name, & Name, Year) the first time you cite the source. Use (Name et al., Year) for any citations after that. 

Do I need to use page numbers for all in-text citations? 

Use page numbers to cite any quotes. If you are paraphrasing, APA does not require the page number (check with your instructor for preference).