Purpose: briefly identifies the work you are quoting or paraphrasing, with a corresponding full citation in the reference list so readers can find your sources. Include in-text citations whenever you:
Paraphrase (summarize ideas from a source)
Directly quote from a source
Refer to data or adapt a table, figure, or image from the source
In-Text Citations should:
Include the author’s name and the year of publication
Appear immediately after the relevant section (not necessarily at the end of a long clause or sentence)
Always come before punctuation marks
Professors want students to cite their sources when writing research papers (Smith, 2020).
Smith (2020) argues that students should cite their sources when completing research assignments.
Many believe that “students must learn how to cite sources before starting to work on any research assignment” (Smith, 2020, p. 55).
Smith (2020) suggests that “students […] learn how to cite sources before starting to work on any research assignment” (p. 55).
Additional information is included with the citation:
Professors may not know where to start when teaching students how to cite sources (see Smith, 2020, for more details).
Students may not know a particular citation style (such as APA; Smith, 2020).
Author and year appear in the sentence:
In 2020, Smith shared the results of a study...
Multiple sources cited in the sentence:
Several studies show that students who write APA style papers with good reference lists receive better grades (Smith, 2020; Lee & Wong, 2018).