Last-name, F. M. (year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Last-name, F. M., Last-name, F. M., & Last-name, F. M. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. https://doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Smith, J. M. (2020). Bridging the gap: Teaching citations to college students. Journal of Higher Education, 34(5), 67-89. https://doi.org/10.1234/5678-9012.34.5.67
Poole, A., Jones, B. B., & Johnson, C. (2020). Citing sources: Working together to share knowledge. Journal of Knowledge, 7(3), 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1777/4321-87220.127.116.11
Last-name, F. M. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Last-name, F. M., & Last-name, F. M. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher.
Potter, A. (2019). Finding information: A guide. Hawk Press.
Miller, A., & Baker, F. (2007). College: A history. Lake University Press.
Last-name. F. M. (Year). Title of chapter. In F. Last-name, F. Last-name, & F. Last-name (Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (page range). Publisher.
Christie, A. (2013). Solving crime: Methods and procedures. In S. Holmes, J. Watson, & S. Baker (Eds.), How to solve mysteries: The complete guide (pp. 112-145). Johnson & Company.
Last-name, F. M. (Year, Month Day). Title of page. Site name. URL
Green, B. G. (2017, March 24). Training cats as service animals. Medium. https://www.medium.com/trainingcats
(Last name, Year, page number)
(Last name & Last name, Year, page number)
(Last name, Last name, & Last name, Year, page number)
(Last name et al., year, page number)
(Smith, 2020, p. 80)
(Miller & Baker, 2007, p. 30-31)
(Poole, Jones, & Johnson, 2020, p. 88)
(Poole et al., 2020, p. 88)
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique string of characters used to identify a specific object (such as a journal article). It works like a barcode or URL.
If your journal article does not have a DOI, your citation is usually finished. If the journal article is from a website (not a research database), include a URL.
*Note: Previous editions of APA Style required articles without DOIs to include Retrieved from [journal home page URL]
Include the DOI for your eBook or book chapter if it has one. If there is not a DOI, do not include other information (ISBN, database name, or URL).
Use (Name, Name, & Name, Year) the first time you cite the source. Use (Name et al., Year) for any citations after that.
Use page numbers to cite any quotes. If you are paraphrasing, APA does not require the page number (check with your instructor for preference).