Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

CSE Quick Citation Guide

Name-Year In Text References (pp. 551-554)

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks.

Name-Year (N-Y) system (end references are listed in alphabetic order)

In text example: By contrast, the several antisera that have been raised against Sp1, a defined RNA polymerase II transcription factor (Kadonaga 1986), stain exclusively the nucleus...

Note: If you mention the author in the running text of your paper, include only the year in the parenthetical citation:

Example: This conclusion is supported by Rubin and Smith (1990), who found that...

Multiple authors:  If two authors, list both. For more than two authors, list the first author then et al.

Example: In the classic experiment (Gass and Varonis 1984) showed that....

Example: Recent research (Munro et al. 2006) has shown that...

No author: Use the title (for long titles use the first few words followed by an elipsis): 

Example: Top fields of study for international students are business and engineering, followed by physical and life sciences, math and computer science, and social sciences (Open Doors 2010).

No date: For online sources if the publication year cannot be determined use the year of access. For print sources use [date unknown]:

Example: Claims were made (Smith [date unknown]) with regards to...

Books (pp. 592-599)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Schott 2002)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

           Schott J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname and Author Surname Year)

(Author Surname et al Year) – 3 or more authors

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s), Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Schott and Priest 2002)

(Schott et al 2002)

References:

            Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives

Tips:

  • List authors, in order, as they appear in the text
  • List all authors, including the 10th author. If there are more than ten authors, list the 1st author followed by “et al.” or “and others”

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s), editor. Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Schott 2002)

References:

            Schott J, editor. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives

Tips:

  • If an author is listed, listing the secondary author (i.e. editor) is optional. 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

           Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Name of part, Chapter title; page #.

           Author(s). Chapter title. In: Author(s). Date. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Schott 2002)

References:

            Shakelford RT. Surgery of the alimentary tract. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunder; 1978. Chapter 2, Esophagoscopy; p. 29-40. 

Kuret JA, Murad F. 1990. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS,            Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. p 1334-60.

Journals (pp. 582-592)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Mazan 2001)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Mazan MR. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res.    62(11):1812–1817

Tips:

  • Abbreviate journal titles (see pp. 642-645) 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname and Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Mazan and Hoffman 2001)

(Pizzi et al. 2002) – example of 3 or more authors

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. 62(11):1812–1817.

Tips:

  • List all authors up to 10 in the citation (p 552)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Author(s). Date. Article title. Journal title. Volume(issue):location.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Weiss 2003)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Home Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References – Conference Proceedings

Author(s). Date. Book title. Number and Name of Conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Extent. Notes

Name Year (N-Y) References – Conference Paper

Author(s) of paper. Date. Paper title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Number and Name of Conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Location. Notes

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Antonioli 1997)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Conference Proceedings

Antonioli GE, editor. c1997. Pacemaker leads 1997. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Pacemaker Leads; 1997 Sep 11-13; Ferrara, Italy. Bologna (Italy): Monducci Editore.

Conference Paper

Lee DJ, Drowey C, Xu X, Antani S. c2003. An imaging system correlating lip shapes with tongue contact patterns for speech pathology research. In: Krol M, Mitra S, Lee DJ, editors. CBMS 2003. Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems; New York. Los Alamitos (CA): IEEE Computer Society. P. 307-313. 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References

Author(s). Date. Title of report. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Extent. Report No.: Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Feller 1981)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB88-228622.

Websites and other online formats (pp. 627-637)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References

Title of Homepage. Date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(APSnet  1994-2005)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

APSnet: plant pathology online. c1994-2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. Notes. 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References

Author(s) of article. Date of publication. Title of article. Title of journal (edition). [date updated; date accessed];Volume(issue):location. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Savage et al. 2005)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. 2005. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. BMJ. [accessed 2005 May 31];330(7500):1119–1120. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/330/7500/1119. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1119.

Tips:

  • A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available:

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References

Author(s). Date of publication. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Brogden and Guthmille 2002)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Brogden KA, Guthmille JM, editors. 2002. Polymicrobial diseases. Washington (DC): ASM Press; [accessed February 28, 2014]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2475/.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the CSE 8th Edition manual.

General Format

Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation: end references are listed in alphabetic order

(Author Surname Year)

Name Year (N-Y) References

Author’s name. Date of publication. Title of post [descriptive word]. Title of blog. [accessed date]. URL.

Example

 Name Year (N-Y) In-Text Citation:

(Fogarty 2012)

Name Year (N-Y) References:

Fogarty M. 2012 Aug 14. Formatting titles on Twitter and Facebook [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. [accessed 2012 Oct 19]. http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/formatting-titles-on-twitter-and-facebook.aspx.