Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Geography Library Guide: Commonly Cited Sources

Research Guidance

American Psychological Association Citation Guidance

Journal Article (pp .198-199)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Author Surname, Year) 

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Pettigrew, 2009, p. 61)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Pettigrew, 2009) 

References:

Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65. doi:10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) 

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available].

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Elloy & Flynn, 1998, p. 98)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Elloy & Flynn, 1998)

References:

Elloy, D. F., & Flynn, W. R. (1998). Job involvement and organization commitment among dual-income and single-income families: A multiple-site study. Journal of Social Psychology, 138(1), 93-101. Retrieved from http://tandfonline.com/toc/vsoc20/current

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Mohr, Trudeau, Nigg, & Nigg, 2016, p. 76)      Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Mohr et al., 2016, p. 76)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Mohr, Trudeau, Nigg, & Nigg, 2016)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Mohr et al., 2016)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

References:

Mohr, M., Trudeau, M. B., Nigg, S. R., & Nigg, B. M. (2016). Increased athletic performance in lighter basketball shoes: Shoe or psychological effect? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(1), 74-79. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0538

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname et al., Year) 

References: Write out all authors with an '&' before the last author

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available] 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ruzzo et al., 2016, p. 457)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Ruzzo et al., 2016)

References: Write out all authors with an '&' before the last author.

Ruzzo, C., Flamma, V., Nava, V., Collu, M., Failla, G., & Arena, F. (2016). Progress on the experimental set-up for the testing of a floating offshore wind turbine scaled model in a field site. Wind Engineering, 40(5), 455-467. doi:10.1177/0309524X16660023 

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname et al., Year) 

References: Write out the first six authors followed by '. . . ' and the last author.

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., . . . Last Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available] 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Piacentini et al., 2016, p. 826)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Piacentini et al., 2016)

References: Write out the first six authors followed by '. . . ' and the last author.

Piacentini, M. F., Witard, O.C., Tonoli, C., Jackman, S. R., Turner, J. E., Kies, A. K., . . . Meeusen, R. (2016). Effect of intensive training on mood with no effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(6), 824-830. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0279 

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Book (pp. 202-205)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Franks, 2005, p. 148)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Franks, 2005)

References:

Franks, A. (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy: The control of female fertility. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year)     Tip: For any subsequent citations

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Greig, Taylor, & MacKay, 2013, p. 63)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Greig et al., 2013, p. 63)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Greig, Taylor, & MacKay, 2013)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Greig et al., 2013)     Tip: For any subsequent citations

References:

Greig, A., Taylor, J., & MacKay, T. (2013). Doing research with children: A practical guide. London, England: Sage.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor First Initial, Surname, Editor First Initial, Surname, & Editor First Initial, Surname (Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (Page range). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Stewart, 2007, p. 102)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Stewart, 2007)

References:

Stewart, B. (2007). Wag of the tail: Reflecting on pet ownership. In J. Jaimeson, T. Bannerman, & S. Wong (Eds.), Enriching our lives with animals(pp. 97-105). Toronto, Canada: Petlove Press.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle [Version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of the home page of the e-book provider.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ochs, 2004, p. 55)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Ochs, 2004)

References:

Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com/corp/

Websites and Other online materials

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Franks, 2005, p. 148)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Franks, 2005)

References:

Franks, A. (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy: The control of female fertility. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

 Tips:

  • When citing specific information from individual web pages, use the following elements to create your citation. For more information on creating citations when some of the elements are missing, see the APA Style Blog post on Missing Pieces.
  • Some elements may be missing. Provide as much information as possible. 

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Blattner and Bacigalupo, 2007, p. 211)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Blattner and Bacigalupo, 2007)

References:

Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(3), 209-219. doi:10.1037/1065-9293.59.3.209

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx or doi:xxxxx

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Post, 1923, p. 148)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Post, 1923)

References:

Post, E. (1923). Etiquette in society, in business, in politics, and at home. New York, NY: Funk & Wagnalls. Retrieved from http://www.bartleby.com/95/

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date of Publication). Web article title (if applicable) [Description of Form]. Retreived from http://www.xxxxxxx

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Thaller, 2007, [p. 148])

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Thaller, 2007)

References:

Thaller, M. (2007). Cool Cosmos [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/