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Journal Article (p .198)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Author Surname, Year) 

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Pettigrew, 2009, p. 61)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Pettigrew, 2009) 

References:

Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65. doi:10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.55

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year) 

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available].

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Elloy & Flynn, 1998, p. 98)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Elloy & Flynn, 1998)

References:

Elloy, D. F., & Flynn, W. R. (1998). Job involvement and organization commitment among dual-income and single-income families: A multiple-site study. Journal of Social Psychology, 138(1), 93-101. Retrieved from http://tandfonline.com/toc/vsoc20/current

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Mohr, Trudeau, Nigg, & Nigg, 2016, p. 76)      Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Mohr et al., 2016, p. 76)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference. 

(Mohr, Trudeau, Nigg, & Nigg, 2016)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Mohr et al., 2016)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

References:

Mohr, M., Trudeau, M. B., Nigg, S. R., & Nigg, B. M. (2016). Increased athletic performance in lighter basketball shoes: Shoe or psychological effect? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(1), 74-79. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0538

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname et al., Year) 

References: Write out all authors with an '&' before the last author

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available] 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ruzzo et al., 2016, p. 457)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Ruzzo et al., 2016)

References: Write out all authors with an '&' before the last author.

Ruzzo, C., Flamma, V., Nava, V., Collu, M., Failla, G., & Arena, F. (2016). Progress on the experimental set-up for the testing of a floating offshore wind turbine scaled model in a field site. Wind Engineering, 40(5), 455-467. doi:10.1177/0309524X16660023 

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname et al., Year) 

References: Write out the first six authors followed by '. . . ' and the last author.

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial.Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., . . . Last Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue). page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available] 

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Piacentini et al., 2016, p. 826)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Piacentini et al., 2016)

References: Write out the first six authors followed by '. . . ' and the last author.

Piacentini, M. F., Witard, O.C., Tonoli, C., Jackman, S. R., Turner, J. E., Kies, A. K., . . . Meeusen, R. (2016). Effect of intensive training on mood with no effect on brain-derived neurotrophic factor. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 11(6), 824-830. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2015-0279 

Tips:

  • If a journal article has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) listed, you will always include this identifier in your reference; do not include the URL of the journal's home page or of the database from which you retrieved the article if a DOI is available.
  • If you viewed a journal article in an online database and it does not have a DOI, you will need to do a quick search outside of the database to locate the URL for the journal's home page (pp. 191-192). The URL must be included in the reference. If the journal is no longer being published and it does not have a home page, then include the URL for the home page of the database from which you retrieved the article (p. 192).
  • If you viewed a journal article in its print format, check if it has a DOI listed. If it does not, your reference to the article would end after you provide the page range of the article
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Book (p. 203)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Franks, 2005, p. 148)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Franks, 2005)

References:

Franks, A. (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy: The control of female fertility. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year, page number)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Author Surname et al., Year)     Tip: For any subsequent citations

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Greig, Taylor, & MacKay, 2013, p. 63)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Greig et al., 2013, p. 63)     Tip: For any subsequent citations.

 

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Greig, Taylor, & MacKay, 2013)     Tip: For the first time you cite this source.

(Greig et al., 2013)     Tip: For any subsequent citations

References:

Greig, A., Taylor, J., & MacKay, T. (2013). Doing research with children: A practical guide. London, England: Sage.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor First Initial, Surname, Editor First Initial, Surname, & Editor First Initial, Surname (Eds.), Book title: Subtitle (Page range). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Stewart, 2007, p. 102)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Stewart, 2007)

References:

Stewart, B. (2007). Wag of the tail: Reflecting on pet ownership. In J. Jaimeson, T. Bannerman, & S. Wong (Eds.), Enriching our lives with animals(pp. 97-105). Toronto, Canada: Petlove Press.

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

General Format

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Author Surname, Year, page number)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Author Surname, Year)

References:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle [Version]. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of the home page of the e-book provider.

Example

In-Text Citation (Quotation):

(Ochs, 2004, p. 55)

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): APA does not require the page number, check with your instructor for preference.

(Ochs, 2004)

References:

Ochs, S. (2004). A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com/corp/

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Reference List- Guidelines

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 6th Edition manual.

What Appears in the References List?

References cited in text must appear in the References list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works (e.g. The Bible); they are cited in text only and are not included in the References list (p.174).

Double-Spaced

Your entire paper, including the References list, should be double-spaced. (p. 180)

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to double-space your paper:

Hanging Indent

Each entry should be formatted with a hanging indent (p. 37).

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to create a hanging indent:
 

Alphabetical

Arrange References entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author, or by title or first word if there is no author (pp.181-183). Ignore the words A, An, and The when alphabetizing by title.

Capitalization

In titles and subtitles of articles, chapters, and books, capitalize only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns (p.185).

Italics

Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers.

Author's Name(s)

Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name(s), not the full name (p.184), even when the full name is given.

If the References list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first (p. 182).

What if there is no author?

If the author’s name is unavailable, use the first few words of the title of the source, including the appropriate capitalization and italics formatting (pp.176-177).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source it is included in the reference (pp.188-192).  A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles).  It is often found on the first page of an article.

Example:
doi:10.1080/14622200410001676305

For more information on DOIs and locating a DOI on a source, check out pages 188-192 of the APA Manual and/or this helpful DOI flow chart from the official APA site.

URLs

When the References entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it at a logical division point, preferably before a slash or dash (p.192).

Abbreviations

For a helpful list of some of the abbreviations used in References (such as Vols. for Volumes) check out page 180 of the APA Manual.